"Native Americans in the Early Republic: Handsome Lake
of the Seneca and John Ross of the Cherokee."
Charles Roberts, Department of History
California State University Sacramento
Charles Robertslink is a professor of Native American History & Literature at California State University, Sacramento, where he has taught since 1970.His areas of particular interest are the Choctaw of Mississippi & Oklahoma from the 1880's to the 1940's & the modern history of California Indians. He is the author of numerous articles and a book "The Choctaws: A Critical Bibliography". He is currently preparing for publication articles on the Pomo Women's Club, the California Indian Jurisdictional Act of 1928, the Zuni pilgrimage to Boston in 1882 and a textbook on California Indian history. he received his Ph.D. in US History from the University of Oregon in 1975.
Read more about Gary Moulton's biography of John Ross, click on image.
The Removal Act
Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia, 1831
Cherokee letter protesting the Treaty of New Etocha
Information about Handsome Lake (Seneca prophet Handsome Lake (ca. 1735-1815) played a major role in the revival of his own and other Iroquois League tribes.)
Brief biography of Handsome Lake
Thomas Jefferson : Letter to Handsome Lake
The Code of Handsome Lake, the Seneca Prophet by Arthur C. Parker, 1913 http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/iro/parker/
Digital History > Handsome Lake
Information about John Ross (Native American chief (1790?1866). He was, born. near Lookout Mt., Tenn., of Scottish and Cherokee parents and in the War of 1812 served under Andrew Jackson. Elected principal chief of the eastern Cherokee in 1828, Ross struggled to hold the ancestral lands of his people but was unable to withstand the constant pressure of the state of Georgia for removal.)
?Our Hearts are Sickened?: Letter from Chief John Ross of the Cherokee, Georgia, 1836
Images of John Ross
Primary Documents in American History > Indian Removal Act
Digital History > Resistance to Removal
John Ross House, Northwest Georgia
Handsome Lake , 1796 Click on image for larger view.
"Handsome Lake Preaching His Code at the Longhouse" Click on the image for a larger view
John Ross, 19th c. Cherokee chief , was a leading opponent of Indian removal. Click on image for a larger view.